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BRIAN KETTELL, the Course Director, worked at the Bahrain Monetary Agency for several years and has extensive experience in Islamic banking.

He has published 13 books on banking and financial markets and over 20 case studies on Islamic banking and finance. His books are all available from Amazon.

 

Glossary of Islamic Banking Terms

The following has been adapted from the SBP Publication, ‘Islamic Banking and Finance: Theory and Practice’ by Muhammad Ayub, Sr. J.D. IBD, SBP)

Amanah

This refers to deposits in trust. A person can hold a property in trust for another, sometimes by express contract and sometimes by implication of a contract. Amanah entails an absence of liability for loss except in breach of duty. Current Accounts are regarded as Amanah (trust). If the bank gets authority to use Current Account funds in its business, Amanah transforms into a loan. As every loan has to be repaid, banks are liable to repay the full amount of the Current Accounts.

Arbun

Down payment; a non-refundable deposit paid by a buyer retaining a right to confirm or cancel a sale.

Al-‘Aariyah

(Gratuitous loan of non-fungible objects) (Al-‘Aariyah means the loan of a particular piece of property, the substance of which is not consumed by its use, without anything taken in exchange, In other words, it is the gift of usufruct of a property or commodity that is not consumed on use. It is different from Qard in that it is the loan of fungible objects which are consumed on use and in which the similar and not the same commodity has to be returned. It is also a virtuous act like Qard. The borrowed commodity is treated as liability of the borrower who is bound to return it to its owner.

Bai‘ Muajjal

Literally this means a credit sale.Technically it is a financing technique adopted by Islamic banks that takes the form of Murabaha Muajjal. It is a contract in which the seller earns a profit margin on his purchase price and allows the buyer to pay the price of the commodity at a future date in a lump sum or in installments. The bank has to expressly mention the cost of the commodity and the margin of profit is mutually agreed. The price fixed for the commodity in such a transaction can be the same as the spot price or higher or lower than the spot price.

Bai' Salam

Salam means a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered later. The seller undertakes to supply some specific goods to the buyer at a future date in exchange for being paid in advance a price fully paid at the time of contract. According to the normal rules of the Shariah, no sale can be effected unless the goods are in existence at the time of the bargain, but Salam sale forms an exception given by the Prophet himself to the general rule provided the goods are defined and the date of delivery is fixed. It is necessary that the quality of the commodity intended to be purchased is fully specified leaving no ambiguity leading to potential disputes. The objects of this sale are goods and cannot be gold, silver or currencies because these are regarded as monetary values exchange of which is covered under rules of Bai al Sarf, i.e. mutual exchange which must be hand to hand without delay. Barring this, Bai' Salam covers almost everything which is capable of being definitely described as to quantity, quality and workmanship.

Bai' bil Wafa

Sale with a right in the seller, having the effect of a condition, to repurchase (redeem) the property by refunding the purchase price. According to the majority of Fuqaha this is not permissible.

Daman

1) Contract of guarantee, security or collateral;2) Responsibility of entrepreneur/manager of a business; one of two basic relationships toward property, entailing bearing the risk of its loss.

Dayn

means Debt .A Dayn comes into existence as a result of any contract or credit transaction. It is incurred either by way of rent or sale or purchase or in any other way which leaves it as a debt to another.

Duyun

(debts) ought to be returned without any profit since they are advanced to help the needy and meet their demands and, therefore, the lender should not impose on the borrower more than what he had given on credit.

Falah

Falah means to thrive, to become happy or to have luck and success. Technically it implies success both in this world and in the Akhirah (Hereafter). The Falah presumes belief in one God, the apostlehood of Prophet Muhammad, Akhirah and conformity to the Shariah in behaviour.

Fiqh

Islamic law. The science of the Shariah.

Gharar

This means any element of absolute or excessive uncertainty in any business or a contract about the subject of contract or its price, or mere speculative risk. It has the potential to lead to undue loss to a party and unjustified  enrichment of the other, which is prohibited.

Al Ghunm bil Ghurm

This provides the rationale and the principle of profit sharing in Shirkah arrangements. Earning a profit is legitimized only by engaging in an economic venture, applying risk sharing principles and thereby contributing to the economy.

Hadith

(see Sunnah)

Halal

Anything permitted by the Shariah.

Haram

Anything prohibited by the Shariah. Examples are wine and pork.

Hawalah

Literally, this means a transfer.Legally, it is an agreement by which a debtor is freed from a debt by another becoming responsible for it, or the transfer of a claim of a debt by shifting the responsibility from one person to another – contract of assignment of debt. It also refers to the document by which the transfer takes place.

Hibah

Gift.

Ijara

means letting on a lease. It refers to the sale of a definite usufruct of any asset in exchange for a  definite reward. It refers to a contract of land leased at a fixed rent payable in cash and also to a mode of financing adopted by Islamic banks. It is an arrangement under which the Islamic banks lease equipment, buildings or other facilities to a client, against an agreed rental.

Ijarah-wal-Iqtina‘

means a  mode of financing, by way of hire-purchase, adopted by Islamic banks. It is a contract under which the Islamic bank finances equipment, building or other facilities for the client against an agreed rental together with a unilateral undertaking by the bank or the client that at the end of the lease period, the ownership in the asset would be transferred to the lessee. The undertaking or the promise does not become an integral part of the lease contract to make it conditional. The rental as well as the purchase price are fixed in such a manner that the bank gets back its principal sum alongwith with some profit, which is usually determined in advance.

Ijtihad

Refers to the endeavour of a qualified jurist to derive or formulate a rule of law to determine the true ruling of the divine law in a matter on which the revelation is not explicit or certain, on the basis of Nass or evidence found in the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah. Express injunctions have no room for Ijtihad. Implied injunctions can be interpreted in different ways by way of inference from the accepted principles of the Shariah

‘Illah

this is the attribute of an event that entails a particular Divine ruling in all cases possessing that attribute. ‘Illah is the basis for applying analogy for determining permissibility or otherwise of any act or transaction.

Ijma‘

Consensus of all or a majority of the leading qualified jurists on a certain Shariah matter in a certain age.

‘Inah

( A kind of Bai): this is a double sale by which the borrower and the lender sell and then resell an object between them, once for cash and once for a higher price on credit, with the net result being a loan with interest.

‘Inan

(A type of Shrikah): this  is a form of partnership in which each partner contributes capital and has a right to work for the business, not necessarily in equal shares.

Istihsan

this is a doctrine of Islamic law that allows exception to strict legal reasoning, or guiding choice among possible legal outcomes, when considerations of human welfare so demand.

Israf:

this refers to immoderateness, exaggeration and waste and covers spending on lawful objects but exceeding moderation in quantity or quality; spending on superfluous objects while necessities are unmet; spending on objects which are incompatible with the economic standard of the majority of the population. See also Tabzir

Istisna’a

this is a contractual agreement for manufacturing goods and commodities, allowing cash payment in advance and future delivery or a future payment and future delivery. A manufacturer or builder agrees to produce or build a well described good or building at a given price on a given date in the future. Price can be paid in installments, step by step as agreed between the parties. Istisna’a can be used for financing the manufacture or construction of houses, plant, projects, and the building of bridges, roads and highways.

Jahala

Ignorance, lack of knowledge; indefiniteness in a contract, sometime leading to Gharar.

Kali bil-Kali

The term Kali refers to something delayed. It appears in a maxim forbidding the sale of al-Kali bil-Kali i.e. the exchange of a delayed counter value for another delayed counter value.

Al-Kafalah

(Suretyship) Literally, Kafalah means responsibility, amenability or suretyship. Legally in Kafalah a third party become surety for the payment of a debt. It is a pledge given to a creditor that the debtor will pay the debt, fine etc. Suretyship in Islamic law is the creation of an additional liability with regard to the claim, not to the debt or assumption only of the liability and not of the debt.

Kharaj bi-al-Daman

 Gain accompanies liability for loss. This is a Hadith forming a legal maxim and is a basic principle of Islamic finance– see also Al-Ghunm bil Ghurm.

Khiyar

means an option or the power to annul or cancel a contract.

Khiyar al-Majlis

means the power to annul a contract possessed by both contracting parties as long as they do not separate.

Khiyar al-Shart

A right, stipulated by one or both of the parties  to a contract, to cancel the contract for any reason for a fixed period of time.

Mal-e-Mutaqawam

Things the use of which is lawful under the Shariah; or wealth that has a commercial value. Legal tender of the modern age that carry monetary value are included in Mal-e-Mutaqawam. It is possible that certain wealth has no commercial value for Muslims. Examples would be pork or wine.

Mithli

(Fungible goods): Goods that can be returned in kind, i.e. gold for gold, silver for silver, US $ for US $, wheat for wheat, etc.

Mubah

means an object that is lawful (i.e. something which is permissible to use or trade in).

Mudarabah

a form of partnership where one party provides the funds while the other provides expertise and management. The latter is referred to as the Mudarib. Any profits accrued are shared between the two parties on a pre-agreed basis, while loss is borne by the provider(s) of the capital.

Murabaha

Literally this means a sale on mutually agreed profit. Technically, it is a contract of sale in which the seller declares his cost and the profit. Murabaha has been adopted by Islamic banks as a mode of financing. As a financing technique, it can involve a request by the client to the bank to purchase a certain item for him. The bank does that for a definite profit over the cost which is stipulated in advance.

Musawamah

Musawamah is a general kind of sale in which the price of the commodity to be traded is bargained between seller and the purchaser without any reference to the price paid or cost incurred by the former.

Maisir

An ancient Arabian game of chance played with arrows without heads and feathering, for stakes of slaughtered and quartered camels. It came to be identified with all types of hazard and gambling.

Musharakah

Musharakah means a relationship established under a contract by the mutual consent of the parties for sharing of profits and losses in a joint business. It is an agreement under which the Islamic bank provides funds which are mixed with the funds of the business enterprise and others. All providers of capital are entitled to participate in management, but not necessarily required to do so. The profit is distributed among the partners in pre-agreed ratios, while the loss is borne by every partner strictly in proportion to respective capital contributions.

Qimar

Qimar means gambling. Technically, it is an arrangement in which possession of a property is contingent upon the happening of an uncertain event. By implication it applies to a situation in which there is a loss for one party and a gain for the other without specifying which party will lose and which will gain.

Qiyas

Literally this means measure, example, comparison or analogy. Technically, it means a derivation of the law on the analogy of an existing law if the basis (‘illah) of the two is the same. It is one of the sources of Islamic law.

Riba

means an excess or increase. Technically, it means an increase over the principal in a loan transaction or in exchange for a commodity accrued to the owner (lender) without giving an equivalent counter-value or recompense (‘iwad) in return to the other party; every increase which is without an ‘iwad or equal counter-value.

Riba Al-Fadl

Riba Al-Fadl (excess) is the quality premium in exchanging low quality with better quality goods e.g. dates for dates, wheat for wheat, etc. – an excess in the exchange of Ribawi goods within a single genus. The Concept of Riba Al-Fadl refers to sale transactions while Riba Al-Nasiah refers to loan transactions.

Qabul

Acceptance, in a contract; see also Ijab.

Qard

(Loan of fungible objects): The literal meaning of Qard is ‘to cut’. It is so called because the property is really cut off when it is given to the borrower. Legally, Qard means to give anything having value in the ownership of the other by way of virtue so that the latter could avail of the same for his benefit with the condition that same or similar amount of that thing would be paid back on demand or at the settled time. It is a loan which a person gives to another as a help, charity or advance for a certain time. The repayment of the loan is obligatory. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said “…..Every loan must be paid……”. But if a debtor is in difficulty, the creditor is expected to extend time or even to voluntarily remit the whole or a part of the principal. Qard is, in fact, a particular kind of Salaf. Loans under Islamic law can be classified into Salaf and Qard, the former being loan for a fixed time and the latter payable on demand. (see Salaf)

Riba Al-Nasiah

Riba Al-Nasiah or riba of delay is due to an exchange not being immediate with or without excess in one of the counter values. It is an increment on principal of a loan or debt payable. It refers to the practice of lending money for any length of time on the understanding that the borrower would return to the lender at the end of the period the amount originally lent together with an increase on it, in consideration of the lender having granted him time to pay. Interest, in all modern banking transactions, falls under the purview of Riba Al-Nasiah. As money in the present banking system is exchanged for money with excess and delay, it falls, under the definition of riba.

Ribawi

Goods subject to Fiqh rules on Riba in sales, variously defined by the schools of Islamic Law: items sold by weight and by measure, foods, etc.

Al- Rahn

means pledge or collateral; legally, Rahn means to pledge or lodge a real or corporeal property of material value, in accordance with the law, as security, for a debt or pecuniary obligation so as to make it possible for the creditor to recover the debt or some portion of the goods or property. In the pre-Islamic contracts, Rahn implied a type of earnest money which was lodged as a guarantee and material evidence or proof of a contract, especially when there was no scribe available to put it into writing. Theinstitution of earnest money was not accepted in Islamic law and the common Islamic doctrine recognized Rahn only as a security for the payment of a debt.

Salaf

means loan/debt .The word Salaf literally means a loan which draws forth no profit for the creditor. In wider sense, it includes loans for specified periods, i.e. short, intermediate and long-term loans. Salaf is another name for Salam as well wherein the price of the commodity is paid in advance while the commodity or the counter value is supplied in future; thus the contract creates a liability for the seller. Amount given as Salaf cannot be called back, unlike Qard, before it is due. (see Qard)

Al-Sarf

Basically, in pre-Islamic times this was the exchange of gold for gold, silver for silver and gold for silver or vice versa. In Islamic law such an exchange is regarded as ‘sale of price for price’ (Bai al Thaman bil Thaman), and each price is consideration of the other. It also means sale of monetary value for monetary value – currency exchange.

Shariah

The term Shariah refers to divine guidance as given by the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad and embodies all aspects of the Islamic faith, including beliefs and practice.

Shirkah

means a contract between two or more persons who launch abusiness or financial enterprise to make profits. In the conventional books of Fiqh, the partnership business is  discussed under the option of Shirkah and that may include both Musharakah and Mudarabah.

Sunnah

means custom, habit or way of life. Technically, it refers to the utterances of the Prophet Muhammad other than the Holy Quran. These utterances are known as Hadith, or his personal acts, or sayings of others, tacitly approved by the Prophet.

Tabarru’

means  a donation/gift the purpose of which is not commercial but is done to seek the pleasure of Allah. Any benefit that is given by a person to other without getting anything in exchange is called Tabarru’ It is  absolutely at the lender’s own discretion and without any prior condition or inducement for reward.

Tabzir

Spending wastefully on objects which have been explicitly prohibited by the Shariah irrespective of the quantum of expenditure. See also Israf.

Ujrah

A contract of agency in which one person appoints someone else to perform a certain task on his behalf, usually against a certain fee.

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